We take little notice of fire hydrants… until, that is, they are urgently required when there is a fire. They’re seldom spoken-of yet they are found along the footpaths of every street in Auckland, their history and importance overlooked. This item redresses the balance.
The official definition of a Fire Hydrant is ‘…a form of connection in a water main to which apparatus may be fixed which will provide a continuous flow of water for firefighting”*.
In essence, the hydrant is a tap or a valve which firefighters turn on to get water to effect firefighting.
Theoretically every street in our urban areas has fire hydrants, their position and spacing apart, and the size of the water main, is usually dictated by the local authority. While we seldom get to see the underground part of the hydrant (the connection to the main and the valve used to turn on the water), it’s another story above the ground! It is critical that hydrants are prominent so that when there’s a fire they are easily seen and over the years there have been various “signposts”: these days principally the “lid” or “cover”, set flush into the footpath, is painted bright yellow and often marked in other ways which we will see.
Most folk blithely walk over the hydrant lids: their importance unrealised there’s a fire!
Auckland’s fire hydrants follow the British “underground” system, unlike the American standard which is all above ground, prominent on all US streetscapes.
* “Dictionary of Fire Technology” – Institution of Fire Engineers, 1968
In Auckland’s earliest days the water mains were made of wood and every now and then along their length there were wooden bungs. Firefighters carried a tool on their belt to prise out the bung, or plug, to obtain running water: hence the old name “Fire Plug”, abbreviated as FP, the letters still seen occasionally on hydrant lids dating back to the old days).
Firefighters depended on the water pressure in the mains to obtain a flow sufficient for firefighting.
Prior to 1877 Auckland firefighters relied on supplies from a mix of wooden and steel pipes, along with sumps, wells and streams which had been plotted on a map by Army engineers in 1854. One of the earliest sources was a salt water main from the harbour, while others were springs at Official Bay and Mechanics Bay until, in 1866, water was piped from the springs in Auckland Domain, (known these days as the Duck Ponds), the flow gravity-fed to the townspeople.
This was the town’s first reticulated public water supply which had some 20 access points for the fire brigade. (These days Greater Auckland has some 47,000 fire hydrants).
Then in 1877 Auckland’s reticulation was revolutionised with a new supply sourced from Western Springs. Iron pipes replaced smaller mains affording much better water pressure and at last there were proper cast-iron hydrants, known as ball-type.
More importantly, in the event of a fire turncocks could now boost the pressure by opening valves at the nearest pumping station. Installing fire hydrants was part of the reticulation contract: the hydrant consisting of the valve, the cast iron box that enclosed it and the lid which was made prominent by a coating of white-wash. It faded in the sun and washed away with the rain… more enduring white paint was used in later years. In 1882 Auckland City Council’s T. W. Hickson produced a detailed street map of the inner city showing all the fire plugs: invaluable to the fire brigade. In 1914 legislation pointed to the importance of hydrants: it provided stiff penalties for anyone “concealing or damaging a fire plug”.
Local bodies, local government, have always been responsible for purchasing and installing fire hydrants, thus a wide variety of makers, of shapes and sizes existed over the decades. One feature that was almost universal: the tread or hatching on the outside of the lid was usually diamonds, a pattern that has endured. As borough councils grew in number this posed a problem because there was no universal size: there were different waterway connections in various parts of Greater Auckland. This stymied assistance when there was a big fire: fire brigades had different sized water-way equipment and could not help each other… Auckland City Brigade was equipped to ship in to 2.75 inch (6.98cms) pipes while Parnell and other districts had various types of hose and connections. In 1923 a New Zealand standard, 2.50 inch, (6.53cms) fitting was gazetted. It took time, and money, to convert thousands of hydrants across all Auckland suburbs to comply.
There was another major change in the 1940s following a scare that ball-type hydrants were a threat to public health. It was found that as the ball drops in the valve there’s a possibility foul water can enter the mains through the gap, thus polluting drinking water. Indeed, this was the supposed cause of a Typhoid epidemic in both England and Australia. Ball hydrants were outlawed. The new 2.5 inch (60mm) sluice type, or screw down, hydrant was fully sealed: no detritus could enter the waterworks and it was painted yellow to distinguish from the old ball-type which was gradually phased out. Firefighters reported much better flows from the new hydrants.
Fire hydrants in New Zealand are now universally screw-down type, their lids painted yellow (Chrome Yellow): any white hydrant covers remaining have been overlooked, “left behind”, the hydrants probably unserviceable.
Some hydrants are not ‘beneath our feet” because they are situated in the middle of the road or on the carriageway. Tyres, rather than feet, pass over them and, as a result of the weight of traffic volumes, some lids become broken and sunken.
They’re usually on the road instead of the footpath because at some time the carriageway has been widened and the Council hasn’t had the money or whit to relocate water, gas and sewerage pipes beneath the new footpaths.
This makes it difficult for firefighters to access hydrants in the middle of the road, such as the length of Greenlane West, where hydrants are almost centre-line along the very busy arterial road.
Some of these lids which are situated on the carriageway near footpaths have circles painted around them to remind motorists not to park too close.
Other “signposts” to Fire Hydrants
Over the years local bodies often erected signage to indicate the location of fire hydrants: to assist firefighters when they are urgently looking for supplies of water for firefighting. These additional “signs” are fast disappearing but some survive. The example below was typical of the cast-iron plate used for decades in streets across Greater Auckland, mounted on a post or on a wall etc. adjacent to the fire hydrant. Originally painted white, latterly yellow.
Another example still exists on a shopfront in O’Connell Street, City. This one, like the one above, shows many coats of paint applied over the decades. Local councils were responsible for their upkeep and in some areas firefighters were employed on their days off to paint the lids and the signage. It was beneficial to firefighters… and not only for the pay… they got to know where all the hydrants were in cases of fire!
The steel FP plaque survived until recetly (2023) on the fence of a historic-listed building, a two-storeyed house at 23 Alten Road, City. It’s thought to be the oldest house in Auckland at its original address, built for John McLeary in 1859. In 2023 the fence disappeared, with it the FP plate.
Some Auckland boroughs also marked hydrants with a post on the grass verge or, more likely, on the fence line. They were painted white: when the ball hydrants were replaced the colour changed to yellow, but the letters “H”, “FH” or “FP” remaining.
Most fire hydrants were also “sign-posted” by a painted kerbstone.
From earlier days there was a flat half-circle on the footpath known as a “D” Indicator. They were set into the kerb-line, the width and height of the kerbstones, with a marble-like white surface. These are now fast disappearing from the streetscape.
This white “D” Indicator originally signposted a Ball-type hydrant, now overpainted yellow to show the replacement sluice type.
Much more recently there have been triangles on sealed roadways pointing to a nearby hydrant. At first they were painted white in different styles according to the types of hydrant: these days they are solid yellow, painted, or concreted, on to the road surface.
They are usually located towards the middle of the road avoiding wear and tear from passing traffic, often accompanied by a blue “cat’s eye” reflector to help rapid location of the hydrant at night.
Underground: The Valve
Here ‘s what’s normally unseen: the underground parts of the modern fire hydrant which is enclosed in a cast iron box.
It’s made by Gillies’ Foundry in Oamaru based on a famous Blakeborough design (see later, below). The base of the hydrant is bolted on to the watermain. The outlet, right, is where the standpipe screws down on, and the spindle (top) is where the key is inserted to turn on the valve (the “tap”). See additional diagrams in Appendix 1.
Most patterns of fire hydrants lids have slots enabling firefighters to rapidly insert a lever (the “bar”) to flip open the lid and access the hydrant.
Once opened, the standpipe is screwed on… this is the connection between the valve/waterpipe and the hose. The key is used to turn on the water.
These days fire hydrants are subject to an international standard “AS3996 – Access Covers and Frames” which sets out dimensions and minimum requirements.
Above-ground: The Hydrant and Valve Lids
We are most interested in “iron ware” that we can see in the footpath and that we walk all-over every day; it’s the cast-iron lid of a hydrant or valave which sometimes gives away the maker’s name and, for some, their age. A number of makers were pioneer foundrymen in Auckland, and further afield.
T. and S. Morrin
Probably Auckland’s oldest surviving “lid” is in the footpath in Auckland Domain near the bandstand. Constructed by Auckland ironmongers, T. and S. Morrin, in their downtown foundry, it probably covered a valve in the pipeline which formed the city’s first-ever reticulated supply in 1866 from reservoirs in the Domain piped to selected downtown streets.
The pipeline supplied water for “fountains”, where townspeople could collect water for domestic use, and for firefighting – the city’s original fire hydrants. Pressure and quantity available always depended on the level of the reservoirs.
Blakeborough and Sons, Brighouse, Yorkshire, UK.
With its origins in 1828, this company patented a fire hydrant in 1875 and went on to manufacture all kinds of valves and associated waterworks equipment, earning world-wide reputation. The company made essential goods during wartime (submarine parts during World War One, and fire extinguishers among other products to assist the Second World War) and was taken over by other companies in the 1980s.
The small Blakeborough lid on Pitt Street, outside the Methodist Church, Newton, has remnants of white paint indicating it was a ball-type hydrant and it follows the standard British letters “FH” but in much smaller letters than most other covers.
Charles Judd, Thames, New Zealand
Charles Judd (1837 – 1924) began his iron foundry in Thames in November 1869, the first such business in the town, which flourished making machinery (stamper batteries) and equipment (motors and pumps) for the Coromandel gold fields. The company had the contract to construct most of New Zealand’s lighthouses and broke into the Auckland market in 1893 making valve boxes for the new waterworks at Western Springs and forming the ironwork for the Herald newspaper’s new building in Queen Street.
In January 1900 Charles Judd was the successful tenderer to supply water works castings for Auckland City Council… this hydrant lid may have been part of that contract. It’s smaller than today’s standard hydrant.
G. B. Proud, Cleave Avenue, off Grey St, Auckland City
George Bell Proud (1838 -1920) was originally in business as a partnership with Stephens, then started his own foundry, 1880s, in several premises in Cleave Avenue, Vincent Lane and Yelverton Terrace, all off Grey Street (now Greys Avenue), the site of the present Aotea Square.
The oval hydrant, painted in the old white livery with FP, admitted a smaller, thinner standpipe which delivered far less water than modern waterways.
Shaw, Freemans Bay, Auckland
J. Shaw owned the Atlas Iron Works, first-mentioned in 1912 as situated in Freemans Bay Reclamation, then Halsey Street and later Fanshawe Street, an area that was the Penrose of its time with several foundries, mechanical workshops, ships’ chandlers, timber mills and warehouses full of iron and steel goods. 1912-1920 must have been years of expansion for the Atlas Works with frequent advertisements in newspapers for patternmakers, moulders, iron makers and apprentices. The foundry was still operating in 1947.
This hydrant was the small oval type with FP, originally white but with traces of blue paint. It was in Warangal Street, Onehunga, outside Mitre Ten until 2016 when it disappeared after road works. Onehunga streets in this area were reticulated in the late 1890s… this hydrant may have been one of the originals.
Small rectangular lid on Mount Smart Road near Athens Road, Onehunga sized for the smaller standpipe.
Obviously, it has not been in use for many years with just a few spots of white paint still evident.
Small, rectangular lid unique in that it’s square and, then, instead of diamond tread it has squares. The letters FP have full-stops after them. This hydrant was also designed for smaller standpipes.
It survives on the concourse at Fire and Emergency New Zealand’s Regional Training Centre at Mt Wellington. Since the hydrant is much older than the establishment (opened in November 1967) it must have been set into the concrete during construction, perhaps to train firefighters from those boroughs, like Mt Roskill, that at that time still had some of the old, smaller, types of hydrant requiring what was known as the slender McNaughton Standpipe.
Examples of a small rectangular hydrant can be found in Mt Albert and Sandringham streets: this one is in King Edward Street near the walkway. It likely dates to the 1920s when the area was subdivided.
Its white paint endures and notable is that while the diamonds are raised to provide tread while the letters F.P. are, unusually, indented.
Cory-Wright and Salmon Limited, Wellington and Auckland
Silston Cory-Wright, (1888 – 1976) an English electrical engineer and science graduate, assisted planning, purchase and installation of turbines for hydro-electric power stations in the early 1900s. His work was interrupted by the war and in November 1915 he joined the Corps of New Zealand Engineers. There he served alongside Cedric Salmon (1892-1979) and, post-war, they formed a company based on their extensive knowledge of engineering and they secured the New Zealand agency for some of the overseas companies they were familiar with, notable John Blakeborough In England (see above). The partners successfully tendered for major works, among them the electrification of railways, sale of locomotives, construction of government buildings and bridges and their specialisation, hydro-electric gear and installation. Alongside the massive engineering works they were engaged in, the company sold “Stella” radios in the 1950s, later adding giant American motor-scrapers and Japanese heavy industrial equipment. The company went into receivership in March, 1988, with a $57 million deficit… its Chief Executive, convicted of fraud and dishonesty, was sent to jail. The name Cory survives in the Sonepar Group after a series of takeovers: Cory’s Electrical.
Making hydrants must have been a smaller part of the business: this hydrant is situated in Poynton Terrace, off Pitt Street, Newton.
Gillies Foundry, Tyne Street, Oamaru
George Thomas Gillies, from Dunedin, began trading during the 1920s in Oamaru as a car salesman, then a garage proprietor (credited with having the first kerbside petrol bowser in New Zealand) and branched into electrics, supplying hydro-electric works. He also owned a hotel in the town, an Oamaru-stone quarrying concern and in 1943 he took over North Otago Engineering Company which made a wide assortment of iron and metal works. George Gillies saw another opportunity post-World War 2, when as part of the motor business, he purchased war-surplus GMC trucks. They were very popular with farmers and forest owners. The profits from the sales funded new methods and up to date equipment in the foundry. Gillies purchased intellectual rights from the Blakeborough foundry in Yorkshire, England, (see above) for its patented design of water valves, enabling Gillies to take a lead in this part of the industry.
Gillies Foundry was taken over by the Hynds Group in 2006 and survives, trading as Gillies Metaltech Limited… and still making fire hydrants. Note that diamond hatching has given way in the design to square studs in the tread.
Speedway Products Limited, Great South Road, Penrose. Showrooms in Albert Street, City
A post-war company formed in Wellington in September 1947, it made a wide variety of metal and electrical products ranging from iron works to water heaters. Speedway Products Ltd was better known as makers of electric appliances, especially, post-war, their “EasyWay” washing machines whose motors powered the agitator, the wringer and, in deluxe models, the pump to drain the water. These washing machines became a household name in New Zealand in the 1950s, paralleling the post-war recovery and baby boom. Speedway Products also manufactured their “WonderHeat Air-conditioning Fire” which comprised a firebox with a revolutionary glass-louvered front, adjustable to control the rate of combustion and release of heat. The domestic coal/wood-burning model was accompanied by an oil-burning version for commercial applications with water heating connections optional. In 1940 Speedway marketed their Gas Producer to power vehicles instead of petrol which was rationed during war time, reserved for the military.
As an aside and in contrast, Speedway Products were national distributors of “Greenwell’s Vitamin A Ointment”- said to be invaluable for insect bites, cuts and abrasions, and the range of “Kwiko” household products – such as “magic carpet shampoo” to clean and protect floor-coverings. The company merged with National Electrical and Engineering Company Ltd in 1990, the name disappearing in dissolution in 1998.
Hume Industry New Zealand Limited
Originally a family business in Australia from 1920, Humes expanded to New Zealand with a factory in Masterton in 1923. In , featuring the manufacture of concrete pipes, tanks and superstructure. Humes opened a foundry in Wanganui in the 1950s. It made a wide range of cast iron works, including waterworks fittings, later becoming the specialised Hume’s Castings. Fletcher Challenge acquired Humes in 1997… fire hydrant boxes and covers are still made under the Humes name.
This picture shows a Humes lid that has been modified. The water pipe, and thus the hydrant valve, is not deep enough under the footpath so the whole box sits high, thus the lid could not be fitted because the spindle protruded. Workmen cut a hole in the lid to overcome the problem! And then they found the lid was too big for the box so they crudely trimmed one end (right) to make it fit. “LD” in the lower right corner is the code for the specific casting pattern.
Murphy and Body
A company, Murphy and Body Limited, was registered in 1976 with its office in Levin.
John Burns and Company Limited
Founded in 1882 as Wingate, Burns and Company, the firm became John Burns Limited in 1890 with the retirement of Mr Wingate. Wholesalers, the company dealt in iron and metal wares, ships’ chandlery, machinery, and electrical goods: the New Zealand representatives for major American and British brands. Ships bringing merchandise to Auckland for the John Burns carried the firm’s exports – flax, kauri gum and wool – on the return voyage. The company commissioned the building of scows and small ships for coastal shipping services. The firm had a multi-storey headquarters, warehouse and offices, in Customs Street East, City, and extensive stores, foundry and workshops in Stanley Street at the foot of Alten Road. The Customs Street premises suffered a serious, fatal, fire in August 1941.
By the 1960s the company had branches throughout New Zealand but in the early 1980s there was but one store trading as Burnsco Marine in Parnell, Auckland, concentrating on ships’ chandlery. Today there are branches in more than a dozen main centres.
Mason and Porter, Main Highway, Mt Wellington
Originally City Engineering Limited, Messrs Reuben Porter, Harold Mason and Edwin Jones, founded the company in downtown Auckland in 1910, soon moving to larger premises in Parnell and in 1915 changing the name to Mason and Porter Limited with the trade name “Masport”. They made their first push-lawn mower in 1929, forerunner of many models both manual and motorised. Rotary hoes, mulchers, refrigerators, garden furniture, motor bikes and foundry works followed, the expanding company building its own sprawling premises in Main Highway, Mt Wellington, which opened in 1940, demolished in 2021.
Much of Mason and Porter’s production between 1939 and 1945 was part of the war effort. Motor mowers remain the company’s stock-in-trade along with distribution of rotary hoes, ride-on turf and agriculture machinery throughout Australasia and the Pacific Islands. In 2017 the German firm AL-KO Gardentech, a modern manufacturer of high-quality gardening equipment, replaced the Tiri Group as owner of Masport.
Promains , Albany and Papakura, Auckland
Promains, established in 2011, is a manufacturer and distributor of product to the civil and waste- water sectors.
The company also offers planning and specifications for associated projects. It has retained the age-old diamond pattern on the lid.
Fire Plugs and Hydrants in the United Kingdom were mentioned in an Act of Parliament in 1708 which stipulated that a mark had to be fixed on the front of the house over or against the place where the stop-cock was located and a later Act, 1875, was a little more specific when it provided for a mark to be painted on the building or walls near to fire plugs to denote their location. Fire hydrants were standardised by 1940 but, like Auckland, some of the old-style survive.
In the United States, the first pillar-style fire hydrant was invented by Frederick Graff, chief engineer of Philadelphia’s waterworks about 1801. It stood above-ground and was often covered with wood, and the space within the wood filled with insulation. Unfortunately, Graff’s design meant the pipes had water in them at all times so they were liable to freezing in the winter despite crude efforts at insulation.
In North America fire hydrants are typically painted yellow (but differ State to State) with different coloured hydrants, or just the tops, according to the size of the water mains: firefighters can thus immediately determine output and judge whether they need supplementary supplies from another hydrant. Hydrants painted red often indicate a privately owned, or non-metro, source and purple paint indicates non-potable water.
Unique is one hydrant nearby Dolores Park in San Francisco’s Mission District which is now painted gold, recalling that it was the only serviceable source of water for firefighting during the 1906 earthquake and fire which destroyed much of the city.
The hydrant, made by local foundry Greenberg, is credited with saving much of the Mission District and remains painted gold in memory of its vital role… and the City’s determination, post-earthquake, to have a sophisticated reticulation system so that never again will they have to rely on a single source of water which “The Hydrant That Could” miraculously and thankfully delivered in the 1906 emergency.
Ball Type Hydrant
There were six actions by firefighters to access water from a ball-type hydrant. First a skewer was used to prise off the lid. Second the inside of the box was inspected for debris and, if necessary, scooped out. Third the standpipe was screwed on to the outlet, fourth the hose was connected to the standpipe and, fifth the handle on the top of the standpipes was wound. This allowed the ball to rise allowing water to flow from the mains up through the valve and standpipe and along the hose. This sequence was practised and practised by firefighters so they could “get water on” within seconds.
Screwdown or Sluice Hydrant
The standpipe is connected to the outlet top left.
The drill with these was: first whip off the lid, second clear the box of any debris, third the standpipe was screwed onto the outlet, fourth the hose was connected to the standpipe and, fifth the key is inserted over spindle and wound thus turning on the valve and allowing water to the outlet and the hose. Once again firefighters became very fast to establish water, especially those participating in fire brigade competitions.
Auckland Fire Brigade History – Cliff Mears
(c) RCC 08/09/2021